Core Proprietary Process
Hoskinson’s solution emphasizes utilizing advanced mechanisms to control emissions, incorporating innovative technologies to minimize pollutants, and ultimately achieving a cleaner oxidation process that outperforms traditional mass-burn incinerators.
Hoskinson's Pyrolitic Gasification facility, 1996
Hoskinson’s fully integrated Waste-to-Energy (WtE) operations change this status quo dramatically, where waste- such as forestry, agricultural, industrial, and just about any other waste with a thermal value- can be used as fuel to generate clean and responsible power for thousands of homes and businesses for generations to come. The entire Facility operates 24-7 with minimal downtime for maintenance. The system is modular and scalable by design. The process of producing electricity from waste is comprised of four major steps:
Waste Receiving and Conditioning
The process begins after the garbage truck is weighed. The contents are dumped into the recycling operations section of the WtE Facility, where large or hazardous items are removed for recycling and proper disposal.
The balance of the material is then shredded and processed through a combination of automated separating and recycling machinery and manual labor stationed along a series of conveyor belts, which obtain both RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) material and recyclable material. This part of the process removes much of the metals, glass, and other non-combustible materials and objects inappropriate for introduction into the gasification chamber of the WtE plant.
Recycled material is packaged and prepared for shipment out of the Facility at regular intervals.
The remaining waste is then stored in a staging area inside the building, where it is prepared for the WtE plant. The RDF is continuously and automatically loaded into the augers that introduce the waste into the main primary Pyrolytic Gasification chamber.
The waste is gasified in the primary chamber into a synthetic gas or “syngas” that contains a highly combustible mixture of primarily CO, H2, and other hydrocarbons. The waste continuously moves to the rear of the primary chamber until it is consumed. The primary chamber operates in an oxygen-starved or substoichiometric environment that minimizes oxidation of the syngas at this point.
The syngas then move from the top of the primary chamber to the secondary chamber, where an additional regulated amount of air is added to the syngas flow. While the syngas could be cleaned at this point and introduced into conventional combustion engines, the syngas is oxidized in the secondary chamber more efficiently, where temperatures may approach 2,300°F. This is where additional thermal oxidation reactions occur, with trace amounts of super-heated steam in the waste. This highly exothermic reaction generates a tremendous amount of heat captured by integrated boiler tubes.
These boiler tubes generate superheated steam under moderate pressures and temperatures. This steam is regulated and introduced into the turbine/generator set, which spins and creates the electric current.
The exhaust steam is condensed and reintroduced into the boilers for reheating. The condenser, generator, and other parts of the plant are often air-cooled, substantially reducing the amount of water the Facility needs to operate.
It is required to specify the necessary components to meet or exceed the air quality standards of either the USEPA or the EU for a plant of this type and scale.
The exhaust gas from the secondary chamber then enters the air quality control system (AQC system). The collecting module uses state-of-the-art catalytic ceramic filter elements with infused nano-sized catalysts for substantial NOx reduction and removing other substances that may be present, such as mercury, acid gases, particulate matter, and trace amounts of dioxin/furans. Most of the acid gas present is in the form of HCl reduction. Methane captured by the existing landfill and/or other volatile gases that would otherwise spew into the atmosphere can also be piped into The Hoskinson WtE plant and used as auxiliary fuel.